CATTI三级笔译备考日记,名师手记

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第十八讲 轻巧句、并列句和复合句

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生机勃勃。考纲要求

翻译技艺中的“追魂夺命剑”

  语法知识点1

考察大纲供给考生能科学决断句子的花色、深入分析句子结构、结合语境和句意接收适宜的连天词语、推断主语和从句的不易语序、妥当选用主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

且看它们有多种要,看图别看小编:

  1.as…as.。。辅导的可比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被相比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像您同样学习努力。

二。命题导向

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  (2)在否定句或难题句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学校统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考察重要不外乎:句子的协会、连词的挑肥拣瘦、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习于旧贯用语和万分的句式应用。

森林绿圈出部分~~

  2.only辅导的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

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  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
唯有努力、正直,壹人在生活中本事得逞。 

1.简便句、并列句和复合句

字不根本,看图~~

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  独有那位女子知道怎样解那道题。

① 句子种类三种分类法

哪个人精晓as、v+ing、with,何人就得练神功。那四个效果与利益词怎么用吗?且看下文,作者只是个搬运工。有亟待的爱人,动动你的指头,复制、粘贴、打字与印刷。作者是您的好对象曾沐!

  3.wish辅导的设想语气:wish
后面包车型客车从句,今世表与真情相反的情状,或代表现在不太大概实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词格局为: 

规行矩步句子的用场,俄语的语句可分:汇报句(分明、否定)、疑问句(日常、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、咋舌句等三种。

随笔结尾处有彩蛋~~不谢!

  ⑴代表对未来景况的设想:从句动词用过去式或过去举办式表示,be
的千古式用were.   

信守句子的构造可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

一、as的用法

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
小编期望知道那些题指标答案。(缺憾不明白。) 

差非常的少句独有多少个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分行(;)把多个或多个以上的精练句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有一个或二个以上从句的语句。复合句满含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

1.as用作连词引导岁月状语从句

  ⑵代表对过去情景的伪造:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列排在一条线句的归类

as与when,while都以教导时间状语从句的从属连词,含义都以“当……的时候”。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
小编后悔不应当浪费这么多日子。( 实际蚕月经浪费掉了。) 

并称句指把四个相似首要的句子连接在协同,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

但它们有区别

  ⑶代表对以往的莫名其妙意愿:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在此种情景下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法同生机勃勃,因为主句的主语所愿意的从句动作能还是不能够落到实处,决议于从句主语的势态或希望(非动作名词除了那一个之外)
。 

代表选取涉及常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

用when时,从句的动作能够与主句的动作同不时间产生,也能够先于主句的动作发生;

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能终止。 

表示转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

用while时,从句的动作为豆蔻梢头进度,主句动作与从句动作同临时间张开或在从句动作进程中发出;

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,能够表示央求,平日意味着说话人的不适或不满。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

用as时,主句和从句的动作同期发出,具有持续的意义。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  笔者期待您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

例如:

  4.it情势宾语:和it 作情势主语同样,  大家常用it 来作格局宾语,
把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种景观尤为出未来带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他表明她不会投降。 

状语从句平时修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词引导,附属连词在从句中不担负句子成分。依据状语从句所公布的分化含义和效率,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、妥协、比较、情势等状语从句。

他到达工地时,天正在下雪。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的词语

(2)He was watching TV while his mother was cooking.

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。咱们越惊慌困难,困难就能够变得越强盛。

光阴状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.生龙活虎……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第三次,last
time最后三回,every/each time每一遍,the next time下一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
豆蔻梢头……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

她老妈做饭时他在看电视机。

  语法知识点2

缘由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

(3) You will grow wiser as you grow older.

  1. 宾语从句:经常难点句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

您会随着年事的增高而更为聪明。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗然则状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

2.as用作连词辅导缘由状语从句

  2. 原因状语从句:since教导的

标准状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如若;只要),in case (万生龙活虎);
on condition that(如若), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

as,because,since都能够表示因果关系,连接原因状语从句,含义是“因为,由于”。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

但它们有区别

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
指导。

because表示的弦外之意最强;

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

办法状语从句:as(正如;遵照),as if/as though (好像)辅导。

as通常位于句首,语气较弱,较口语化;

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……甚至于)。

since平日用在书面语中,表示多为对方已知的、或稍加剖析便可查出的原故,不常可译作”既然”。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

例如:

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中多如牛毛使用叙述语序。可是,在下边包车型客车三种景况下,状语从句多使用倒装语序:

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

①当连词as,
though连接妥协状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词平时置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。举例:

她必定会中标,因为她很认真。

  6.状语从句不难(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语朝气蓬勃致,状从轻易选拔分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

(2) Since you are so sure of ithe”ll believe you.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

既然如此您对此如此有把握,他会信赖你的。  

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(3) As rain has fallen, the air is cooler.

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的三个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句接纳局地倒装语序。比如:

因为下过雨,空气相比安适。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“前面贰个情形适用于后世”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

3.as作连词指导拗可是状语从句

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

as与although (或though),however (或no matter
how)等都足以引导妥洽状语从句,含义是“虽然,尽管”。

  3.定语从句 who辅导的限制性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第二个分句选用局地倒装语序,即把第贰个分句用陈诉语序。比方:

但它们有区别

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教我们塞尔维亚语的老大女孩吧?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

although语气稍正式些,可放在句首,也可放在句中,主句中不能够再用but,但足以用yet;

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐指引妥协状语从句,句子选取陈说语序。比如:

as所表示的话音较强,指引的妥协状语从句用倒装语序;

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

however引导退让状语从句时,它的末端可跟形容词或副词,也要用倒装语序。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the
+比较级the+相比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子如故选取陈述语序。比如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

例如:

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since
的不一样之处在于,now that
引出的总得是二个新面世的真情或状态,假使如故依然,和千古比较并从未变动,则毫不
now that 教导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

(1) Although he is quite old, he still jogs every day.

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然我们把富有材质都策画好了,大家应当及时发轫那项新的办事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态日常遵守以下的法规:

她虽说年龄超大,仍旧每一日慢跑。

  7. 缘故状从:for的用法。由because
携带的从句如若身处句末,且前边有逗号,则能够用并列连词 for
来代替。但尽管不是表达直接原因,而是多种景况再说揣度,就不能不用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他前几天没来,因为他害病了。

①意味“同一时候”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等接二连三的年华状语从句,主句和从句时态基本风流洒脱致。比方:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

(2) Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.

  8. 缘由状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore共和国 passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。


表示“未来”意义的法规、时间和妥胁状语从句中多用日常今后时,而主句用日常未来时,被称得上“主将从现”。比方:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

此次意外尽管显得令人出乎意料,却绝非人负伤。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


since辅导的时刻状语从句多用经常过去时,而满含since从句的主句常常用今后成功时。譬如:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

as辅导的妥协状语从句必得以局地倒装的花样现身,被倒装的有的能够是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于那样的结构中,但although不可能这么用。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 独资化的帮助和益处在于能推动相互角逐。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第叁个分句中过去产生时,第叁个分句用日常过去时。例如:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

例如:

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though
引导的状语从句中,假设表示风姿浪漫种与实际相反浮夸,从句多用平常过去时或过去到位时。举例:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的归纳

(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同期,被动结构的状语从句,可总结与主句相通的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可回顾与主句相像的主语和助动词,保留连词+未来分词。比方:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

纵然你反驳,笔者也要去。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works
hard, he makes little progress.)

(6)状语从句被用来重申协会中

就算她念书很拼命,但差不离没到手哪些发展。   Child as/though he was, he
knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew
what was the right thing to do.卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申组织时,生龙活虎律用It is/was
…that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再行使倒装语序。比如:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

虽说他是一个儿女,但她明白该做哪些。

  1. 名词性从句

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.

(1)名词性从句分类:

就算你读得快,你也不可能那样快读完那本书。

根据在句中的功用,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句多种。

(3) However hard he may try, he will not attain his goal.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

无论她怎么努力也达不到对象。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担当元素,有时可被回顾;表示“是还是不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担当成分。假如从句紧缺主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用一连代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;假使从句贫乏状语,用一而再副词when, where, how, why。

4.as作事关代词的用法

出于一连代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用问题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而连续几日词whether
和if(是或不是),在从句中不辜负责句子成分,只起连年功用。

关系代词as指点定语从句时,既可以够单独行使,也足以与其余词连用,其用法要比that和which更为复杂。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

(1卡塔尔as带领定语从句与此外词连用

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可回顾。

①用于the same…as结构中

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。不乏先例的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人奇异的)等。

This is the same book as I read last week.

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。不以为奇的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(提出,提议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

那本书和作者下一周读的那本是如出黄金年代辙。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。习感觉常的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②用于such…as结构中

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(建议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐),
request(乞求,必要),
demand(必要),require(供给,须求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

I don”t like such books as he recommends.

③ 在含蓄advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可回顾。

自己抵触她推荐的那多少个书。

④在生机勃勃部分象征懵掉、耐性等激情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。比方:

③用于”so +adj. + a/an + n. (单数) + as “结构中

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

本人早就远非过去那么强健了。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

(2卡塔尔as单独携带定语从句
as单独引导定语从句时,先行词能够是八个词,也能够是一个句子或短语。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

例如:

  1. 定语从句

(1) She is late, as is often the case.

(1)定语从句的分类

她迟到了,那是常事的事。

定语从句分为节制性定语从句非节制性定语从句二种。约束性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量功能,而非节制性定语从句对先行词起补充和表达表达效果与利益。经常约束性定语从句与先行词之间平素不逗号,而非节制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔断。

(先行词是整套主句)

(2)定语从句的涉及代词和涉嫌副词

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

定语从句平时由关系代词和涉嫌副词指点。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和关联副词必需放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着接连几天来先行词和从句的成效,同一时候在从句中又负责句子成分。

对真相不以为意–你们好几个人都以那般的笨拙。

(3)关系代词和关联副词的用法:

(先行词是不定式短语)

①超越行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何木帝时用which,可作主语或宾语;③前期词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

5.as作介词的用法 as作介词,意思是”作为”,”以……身份”

(4)限定性定语从句与非节制性定语从句的分别

例如:

①节制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完全,以至不合逻辑。比方:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就残破)

He came to China as a tourist five years ago.


非节制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不留心,去掉定从句,意思照旧安然无事。格局上用逗号隔断,不能够that用带领。比方:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意趣仍完整)

他八年前以旅客的身价来过中国。

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally
“相同地”,”同样地”。

①用that而不用 which的状态:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高端修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比如:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

例如:

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

她们并没有同样多的飞行器。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

二、动词ing格局的用法

② 用which而不用
that的状态:带领非限定性定语从句;指代整个主句的情趣;用于介词 的末尾+
关系代词。比如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

一)Ving形式作定语

③ 关系代词as的用法

分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as辅导定语从句。比如:

单个分词作者定语时,放在被修饰的名词早前。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

例如:

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

The man standing by the window is our teacher. Many frightened people
rushed out of the burning building.  

b.
as可代替主句的内容,引导的非节制性定语从句既可放在主句此前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。举例: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

Ving作定语主要代表动作和用场。

c. as 指引非限定性定语从句时与which的分别

  1. 代表动作(主动的、实行的动作卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。

当主句和从句语义意气风发致时,用as指导;反之,用which来指导非约束性定语从句;当非约束订语从句为否定意义时,常用which教导。举例:

a waiting car = the car that is waiting

He made a long speech, as we expected。

a sleeping child 入眠的孩子

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

The girl standing there is my sister.

④关乎代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数依然用复数应由先行词决定。比方:

站在此个时候的女孩是自己的姐妹。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

[注意]当今分词作定语时,它代表的动作是正值进展或与谓语动词所表示的动作差不离同有的时候候产生,假若多个动作有先有后,日常不可能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。

⑤ 辅导定语从句的关系副词有的时候能够用“介词 + which”来代替。比方:

比方: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
先生评论了打破窗户的学习者。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

  1. 意味着用场:

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不可能大概;假如介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举例:

the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

a working method 职业办法

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He has a reading room. 他有八个书屋。

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【比较】

过去分词作者定语:及物动词的过去分词表示被动,比不上物动词的过去分词表示动作达成。
 

例如:

That is the book written by Lu Xun. 那是周樟寿写的书。

He is a returned student. 他是三个回国的留学子。

不定式作定语: 用不定式作定语,其平日所修饰的名词、代词有: meeting,
reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise,
ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody,
thing…

例如: We have no time to lose.

咱俩从猪时间(能够浪费卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)了。

That’s the plan to build the factory.

那就是建那座工厂的安顿。

(二)Ving形式作宾语补足语

  1. 在keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see,
    leave…等动词后常用Ving情势作宾语补足语。 举个例子:

1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night.

丰裕主任让工友自力更生地干活。

2) We found the old lady lying in bed.

笔者们开采那老太太躺在床的上面。

  1. 在感官动词:

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find…等及应用动词:have,
make, leave, keep,
get…等后不仅可以用不定式也得以用Ving格局作宾语补足语。不定式(不带
to卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)表示经过或动作完毕,Ving格局强调举行或立时气象。

例如:

I saw the lady crossing the street.

自小编见到那位女士在过马路。

We heard her sing two songs.

大家听他唱了两首歌。

(三)Ving情势作主语
Ving方式具备动词和名词的习性,在句中起名词成效,可作主语。   Seeing is
believing.百闻不比一见。

It is no use arguing with him.

和他争论并没有用。

Ving情势作主语常用于下列句型:

【句型1】It is + 名词(或形容词卡塔尔国 + 动名词 It is + no use /no  good/ a
waste of time so nice+ crying there.doing that.

例如:

1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在这里处等是浪费时间。

2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很喜欢和您谈话。

【句型2】 There is no + 动名词    

诸如: There is no stopping of him. 不能阻拦他。

There was no telling of the difference. 不能够加以区分。

【注意】

① Ving方式和不定式都得以作主主语,Ving格局作主语表示经常或抽象的
数次性行为,不定式作主语往往代表具体的或三回性的动作。

例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指生龙活虎实际动作卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless
等后必得用Ving方式。

② Ving格局作主语,谓语动词用单数。

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

遗忘过去就意味着戴绿帽子。

(四卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎Ving格局作表语
Ving格局具备形容词和名词的属性,在句中可作表语。作表语用的Ving情势有三种:

豆蔻梢头种用作名词,大器晚成种用作形容词。

用作名词时,表达主语的内容,就此提问时,用what ;

用作形容词时,表明主语的特征,用how进行咨询。

例如:

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It
is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

(五)Ving方式作宾语
Ving情势具有动词和名词的品质,在句中起名词效率,可作宾语。

He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.
他很喜欢足球,笔者赏识游泳。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy,
escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include,
keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest,
can’t help, can’t stand等动词后得以用Ving方式作宾语,但不能够用不定式。

②forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop,
try等动词可带Ving方式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有分化。

试比较:

I remember doing the exercise.

作者记得做过练习。

I must remember to do it.

本人一定要记着做那事。

I tried not to go there.

自己灵机一动不去这边。

I tried doing it again.

本人试着又干了一次。

Stop speaking.  

别说话。

He stopped to talk.

她停下来讲话。

I mean to come early today.

作者希图前天来早些。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了这趟列车意味着再等二个小时。

③在allow, advise, forbid, permit
等动词后直接跟动词作者宾语时,要用Ving方式,假诺前边有名词或代词作者宾语,然后在跟动词作者宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

例如:

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

④动词need, require,
want作“须要”解,其后跟动词作者它的宾语时,必须用Ving形式,或不定式的被动式,当时,Ving方式的能动格局表示被动意义。

例如:

The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to,
thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty
/ trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel
 like, get down to等后的动词也非得用Ving情势。

例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

⑥在love, hate,
prefer等动词后用Ving情势或不定式无大的区分。但讲话人具有指的时候,日常用不定式。

⑦start, begin, continue在封面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

⑧在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

【知识张开】 Ving格局的时态和语态

  1. Ving情势的时态
    Ving方式的时态分一般式和达成式三种,假如Ving格局的动作未有显明性地代表出时间是与谓语动词同一时间发出或在谓语动词以前爆发,用Ving方式的经常式。

例如:

His coming will be of great  help to us.

假若Ving情势的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作以前,平常用Ving格局的产生时态。

例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

  1. Ving格局的语态
    主语是其豆蔻梢头Ving方式所代表的动作的靶蛇时,Ving方式用被动语态。

被动语态由“being + 过去分词”或“having been +
过去分词”构成,后后生可畏种日常防止使用。

例如:

He likes being helped.

He was afraid of being left at home.

在to be worth doing 句型中,Ving方式doing表示的是被动意义。

例 如:

The book is worth reading.

动词的-ing情势是日文中国和欧洲谓语动词的大器晚成种,它在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及补足语。

是因为这种情势是由动词变化而来的,因而它具备动词的部分个性,就能够带本身的宾语和状语,从而结成动词
-ing短语。它有的时候态和语态的改造,也是有否定形式及其复合结构方式。    

现以动词do为例,其生成情势如下:

复合结构情势在句中首要作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing形式。

风流倜傥、
动词-ing格局作主语(平时指二个抽象动作)时,它可向来置于主语地点,也足以用it作情势主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing情势放在句子的后部。

例如:

  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.

  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for
    help in case of an emergency.

  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 4. His coming made us very happy.
    (复合结构作主语)

二、 动词-ing方式作宾语。

例如:

  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks,
    when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.

  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?

  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

[注意]

  1. 下列动词后面日常要用动词-ing格局作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind,
    suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider,
    admit, miss(错失), imagine, avoid(幸免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot
    help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)前边常用动词  
     -ing的积极方式表示被动意义。

例如:

The flowers want watering.

三、 动词-ing情势作表语(常指主语的剧情、状态或品质等)。

例如:

My interests are reading  novels, playing football and singing songs.  
 

The film was so moving that we saw it twice.

四、 动词-ing形式作定语

单个的动词-ing方式作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前边;动词-ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词前边。

例如:

  1. English is the working language of most international. organizations,
    international trade and tourism.

  2. The building being built now will be our library.

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

动词-ing情势作状语时,能够象征时间、原因、伴随意况、条件、结果等。

例如:

  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)

  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)

  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden.
    (伴随境况)

  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all
    the competing countries.

(结果) 注意:

  1. 动词-ing方式(短语)作状语时的多少个特征。


日子性。假若动词-ing形式所表表示的动作与谓语动词所代表的动作同一时候发出,则用日常式;假诺动词-ing格局所代表的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作以前则使用到位式。


语态性。应构思动词-ing方式与句子主语之间的关联是主谓关系如故动宾关系,据此来规定语态。

③ 人称的意气风发致性。动词-ing格局的逻辑主语应和语句的主语风姿洒脱致。

  1. 动词-ing方式前能够加when, while,
    though等附属连词,那能够说是状语从句的省略。

例如:

When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the
glasses should not be touched. While visiting the city, they received a
warm welcome.

六、 动词-ing形式作补足语

例如:

  1. He found the wall being painted.

  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will
    become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.    

平时,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing情势作宾语补足语往往代表其动作在继续或开展中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的数见不鲜的动词有:

have, get, send, leave等采取动词;

see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look
at等感官动词。

当那几个动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing情势就相应形成了主语补足语。

三、with的用法

with结构是过多阿尔巴尼亚语复合结构中最常用的生机勃勃种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结会谈独门主格结构均能起非常重大的固守。

黄金年代、 with结构的结合

它是由介词with或without+复合结构重组,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中率先有的宾语由名词或代词充作,第二盘部补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充任,分词能够是现在分词,也足以是过去分词。

With结构重新组合艺术如下

  1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词+动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词+分词。

上边分别举例:

1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.

(with+名词+形容词,作陪伴状语)

2、 With the meal over , we all went home.

(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。

(with+名词+介词短语,作陪伴状语。)

The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to
say he was kind to me.

(with+名词+不定式,作陪伴状语)

He could not finish it without me to help him.

(without+代词 +不定式,作标准状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

(with+名词+将来分词 ,作陪伴状语)

6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something
to eat.

(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语) 二、with结构的用法
在句子中with结构多数担任状语,表示作为艺术,伴随意况、时间、原因或规范(详见上述例句)。

With结构在句中也得以作定语

例如:

1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few
patches of land sticking out above the water.

3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

三、 with结构的特征

1.
with结构由介词with或without+复合结构组成。复合结构中第风姿洒脱某些与第二有的语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却有所主谓关系,也正是说,能够用第一片段作主语,第二片段作谓语,构成二个句子。

例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good
care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was
gone.)

  1. 在with结构中,第一片段为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。

例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、 几点表明:

  1. with结构在句子中之处:

with
结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时日常位于句子后边,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方法和陪伴情状时通常位于句子前边,不用逗号分开。

若with结构作定语,则位于所修饰的名词之后,平日不要逗号隔开分离。

  1. with结构作状语时,不定式、现在分词 、和过去分词的差别:

在with结构中,不定式、现在分词作宾补,表示积极,不过不定式表示将要发生的动作,近年来天禀词表示正在产生或产生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或成就。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

(男小孩子已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.

(男小孩子明日将教导)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door
shut.(寝室被关着)

  1. with结构与平常的with短语的区别

with结构有所上述作用和本性,而”介词with+名词或代词(组)”组成的平日的with短语在句子中能够作定语和状语。

作状语时,它能代表动作的点子、原因,但无法表示时间、伴随和规格。在经常的with短语中,with前面所跟的不是复合结构,也根本未曾逻辑上的主谓关系。

  1. with结构与单身主格结构的关系:
    with结构归属独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without指点,名词前有冠词、形容词、全部格代词或其余词类所修饰,结构较松懈;

而独立主格结构未有with或without指点,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。在句句法成效上,with结构得以作定语,独立主格结构则无法;独立主格结构经常在句中作状语,但也得以作主语,而with结构则不可能。

单身主格在口语中有时用,往往由叁个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

例如: There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.

(“with+复合宾语”结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

(名词+未来分词构成的独门主格结构,作主语)

The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand
raised.

(独立主格结构,表示伴随处境或作为艺术,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

(名词+介词短语构成的单独主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情况)。

剧情有一些多,下篇文章,笔者将用大家的章程解读那多少个功用词,大家的对象是最简便易行、最有意思、最精准的化解考场。

除此以外,想要理解别的在备考进程中,此外内容的对象,请关切自身的任何小说:

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