女生在校学习成绩更好

图片 1图表来源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高春日大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且间隔正渐次拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

生机勃勃所高端韩文寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那全然在于他们的大脑、肉体和激素”。纽约Bronx Leadership
Academy司长IvanYip称“他们普及认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面三个收取薪金3.8万欧元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另三个为其大多数学员提供午饭补贴,四分之风华正茂的学习者有破例教学须求。可是,它们都同大器晚成致力于消逝相通难题:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是一个十N年前不能够想像的主题素材。直到19世纪70年间在此以前,男孩比女孩费用越来越长日子并拿到更加高等教学育,且更有望从高校结业。未来,无论是富裕世界照旧进一层多的贫寒国家,平衡向另外一方偏斜。曾经担心女孩紧缺精确信心的计划制订者们,未来更加多时光在强行男孩前面摇荡《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了生龙活虎项有关“男孩危害”的钻研。Australia展开了黄金年代项”男孩,汉子,书和比特”的档案的次序。仅仅几代时间内,前贰本性别差别消失,而后豆蔻年华种性别差别又冒出。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以巴黎为营地的丰饶世界智库OECD于7月5号宣布了后生可畏份简报中显示了这种反转。男士在数学领域的主导地位大致会一再。在平均年龄十八虚岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩7个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现特别。但是,在翻阅领域,女孩平素维系超过地位,且间隔变得越来越大。在这里项商量所涉及的63个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩展现优良。女孩平均比男孩超前三个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一层读书要求信任读写本领,OECD将它看做评估中最要紧的本事。果真如此,在落实数学、阅读和自然科学的底工力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出百分之五十的波折也许。在这里个部落的年轻人,因无所依据和无所精湛,而更有极大可能率从本校停学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明了为何男士和女子在堂上内显示出那般反差,先从堂上之外活动入手。经常十五周岁女孩每一周开销5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多八个钟头,他们开销越来越多时光玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而仅有八分之四多点的男人这么做。随着荧屏稳步把眼光从书本挪开,世界上具有地点的阅读率正渐渐下落,而男生下跌速度越来越快。OECD发掘,在那个和经常女人专门的学业日常的男子中,在阅读方面包车型客车性别差别减少了1/3左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

意气风发执教,男子就期盼快点结束。在报告中,多于女人2倍的男人认为上课是浪费时间,况且更不经常迟到。仿佛过去助教努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD最近提出父母和政策制定者指点男人远远地离开将忽略学术成就作为男生气概表现的这种主见。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着各种各样的压力。但不幸的是,他们计划在坏行为上不辜负被人期待。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有不知凡几办事可供未受教育男性选择时,男孩漠视高校还出示没那么非理性。不过那七个生活已经消失。也是有的自高自大有帮助男士学习数学,自信促使男人当先(但神蹟则改为风华正茂种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟识”虚构缩放“这一定义,而那一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他俩贫乏限定让导师很胃疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

可能因为他俩那样令人为难忍受,青年男孩平时给与极低分数。OECD开采,男孩在无名氏测量检验中的表现好于老师评估。在翻阅方面包车型大巴性别差别缩短了四分之生龙活虎;而在数学方面,已超越的男生将区别拉大。另风度翩翩研究显示,因老师缺乏公正,固然工夫异常。男士也比女人更有相当大可能率被需要复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

招致这种差距对待?风流倜傥种也许的演讲是教员职员和工人赋予那么些礼貌、热心和隔开打视而不见的学员更高分数,而这个特征在女孩中国和越南社会主义共和国发宽广。在大器晚成部分国家,以致会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另后生可畏种可能是,女子,构成了十分九的小教的和附近七成的初级中学年老年师,更偏好她们自个儿的性别,犹如男子上级偏心男性下属通常。在局地地点在法网中也可能有性别主义:新加坡依旧允许鞭刑男子,而女人则免于该刑事诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在稍微国家为男孩表现突出提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对比较小。如智利、República de Colombia、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的男生落后于女孩子小于别的地点。然则,令人纠结的是,这总伴随着男子在数学方面当先于女子的反差加大。反过来也树立。女孩与男孩在数学方面显示非凡的冰岛、挪威王国和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人发怒的慢慢加宽的开卷方面性别差距。自2001年OECD最终壹遍就此举办的宽泛考查显示,少数国家男生在翻阅方面碰着了女人,而在另豆蔻年华部分国家女人成功裁减了数学方面包车型大巴间距。但尚无国家成功完毕双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中级教育之后,女子的超越地位继续有限接济。直至新近三十几年,男子大致占有大学的主流人群,极度是不错与工程领域的高阶课程。可是,随着高教在世界范围的如日方升,女子入学增进率差相当的少两倍于男性。在OECD报告表达了,女人注册率由一九八四年的51%升起至56%,到2025年说不好上涨至59%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

就算在少数女人是个旁人全的OECD国家,女子数量也再稳步攀升。与此同临时候,一些包含美利坚合众国、United Kingdom和欧洲国家,女人比男子人口多于二分之一。在繁多美利哥才女公立高校中,性别比例更是平衡。许多个人以为那个高校的不透明招生专门的学业越来越偏幸男人。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,以致于在不短日子内未被人察觉。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当2010年生机勃勃份有关报告摘马上,大家“不相信那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进去高校的女人,绝对于她们的男子同僚,更有望结业,且拿到越来越好地造就。但是,男子和女子所选科目标趋向区别。越来越多地女人接收教育、健康、艺术和人经济学科,而男子更加多选取Computer、工程和精密科学等课程。在数学方面,女子正一直以来,而在科学、社会科学、商业和法规方面,她们处于抢先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相持于任何蓄意的安顿,社会变革更有益于慰勉女性步向高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的减退,以致晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女性寻觅工作提供了方便。随着越多女人步入职业情状,歧视变得没那么显然。生龙活虎旦女人被期待全体育专科学园业发展时,女孩就认识到读书的要紧。上升的离异率使得女子开掘到自己供养的显要。近期,无论是学业上还是职场上,世界各州的女孩比男孩表现出更马咸阳想。不可思议,在19社会风气上半叶,大概大半美利坚联邦合众国专门的学问避免已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那就是说,女人是还是不是慢慢变为骨干性别?出版于二〇一一年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提议,最少在美国,女性不但教育上打头,还在工作上和社会上打头。超级多国家的国策制订者忧虑数量日益攀升的下层阶级的启蒙程度相当的低的男子的前程前途。女子也应当顾忌那点。在过去,女人平常与同阶层或超越本身阶层的男性结婚。借使这种男人比较少,大好些个女子只好搜索下阶层男人或采用不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD显示,虽不是一切,然则在好些个国度,高教投入对女性的报恩当先男人。一家募集收入多少的商店America
PayScale发掘,女人对于大学教育水平的投资收益率相对于男子来说,很低或(在非常情形下)相仿。即使女人完整显示尤其,但她们工塔里木河平仅为男子的3/4。首要缘由在于相对于工程或计算机科学等,女人选用教育、人文和社科那类工资非常低科目。但是,学术研商显示相对于男人,女人更少的关爱薪资,展现了谋求高回报并非女人追求高教的重中之重原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的小购买贩卖和行业内部领域,女子依然少之甚少。女性在母校所表现优势被反败为胜。在全校,故事集及考试评价是佚名的,性别因素被防止,而保养女子不受性别歧视的熏陶。可是,来自于英国CraneField哲高校的Elisabeth
Kelan称,在劳作场馆古板情势再一次应验自身。同等数量的男子和女人加入历史高校和法则大学,可是,10-15年之后,比很多女子选择了更进一层干燥的专门的学问路径或花费更多时间陪孩子。与此同期,随着早先习得的阅世的显要日益消散而性格、雄心和涉世成为更为主要的影响因素,男子在生意层级上日趋攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不长生机勃勃段时间以来,流传着豆蔻梢头种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学可能职场,女子所占比重不足,由此要求时刻去营造通往高层职位的沟渠。不过40年来讲,一些国度结业生人数中女人产生主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据加州圣地亚哥分校高校文学教授ClaudiaGoldin称,女人崛起的尾声环节–平等的薪俸和特等专门的职业也许–若不开展大幅度构造调节是不会赶来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AETucson的最新文献中,Goldin女士发觉高品质劳引力中,在专业生活的10到15年间,男人小时薪资与女人差别宏大,重要原因在于高收益职业的大幅奖金决议于长日子职业和任何时候应对电话为前提。全部来说,男子相对于女子更加长于如此行事。在这里种专门的工作办法遍布的天地,如商业和法则,性别薪俸差别照旧一点都不小。何况,以致长时间离开职业条件也恐怕招致严重惩处,意味着老妈供给交给异常的大代价。而当职业工资首要依赖理工科程师时长度时,就如配药房,性别薪资差距异常的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有个别专门的学业是难以完成灵活性的,就如那么些老总s、法院开庭审判律师、儿科医师、银行家和蓬蓬勃勃部分显赫政客们。而除此以外别的专门的学业,报酬并不是在于随即待命。同期,受过优越教育且想要脱离职业的男人也会从当中受益。但是,新的性别差别坐落于薪水范围的另黄金年代端。受罪的永不女子,而是无本领的男子。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女相似

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend逆袭后生可畏种趋向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑道心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

实习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

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